Analysis Phase

Precheck Existing e-Learning Content


GoLearn is a good source of standard training for a wide variety of topics, including training resources from different providers (e.g. LinkedIn Learning). To reduce costs and make effective use of these resources, existing standard training should be used whenever possible.


Once an e-learning initiative has been prioritized by the business, and if the content is general in nature with no Bayer specifics, the first step should be to check if the content is covered in GoLearn.


More information about GoLearn can be found here.


Creating New e-Learning Content

If no suitable content is available in GoLearn, then the content will need to be produced. According to the ADDIE model, a number of steps need to be carried out during the analysis phase.

The first focus of e-learning analysis should be to define which business success factor(s) the learning should enhance.

Typical examples are:


Targeted Business Success Factors


Ensuring the effectiveness of the operating of the cross-functional protocol development team AND/OR

Ensuring that appropriate ethical and content governance is assured for all protocols developed in the business  AND/OR

Ensuring that all protocols are compliant with the content requirements of Good Clinical Practice AND/OR

Ensuring that protocols are appropriately designed to meet the claims of the study


A single e-learning module on protocol development might target one or many of the example business success factors listed above (or indeed totally different ones).


It’s important to note that awareness or exchange of information will rarely lead to significant business benefits beyond meeting basic compliance obligations. The e-learning company, with assistance from subject matter experts from within Bayer, should always start the analysis phase with the question “What are we really trying to change?” in terms of operating practice or behaviors within our organization.

In addition to always considering the deliverable and targeted business success factor(s), the e-learning company should work with Bayer subject matter experts to confirm which groups contribute to the business success factor(s) and/or which roles will make up the potential audience population.


In some circumstances, the audience groups will be aligned with the standard Learning Management System roles. However, in other situations such as systems training, it is more appropriate to identify the “system roles” (e.g., authors, reviewer, approver) on the first level, and then to confirm by which functions / job roles these “system” roles can be fulfilled.


The targeted roles should be agreed on and documented.

Examples of knowledge / skill / behavior areas include:


= The required content of all protocol templates


= The optimal study design for an antibiotic study


= Application of advanced features of MS Word


= Effective project management of a development team


= Enhanced commitment to protocol development deadlines


The knowledge / skill / behavior statement should then be transformed into a specific learning outcome statement, always referring back to the defined Targeted Business Success Factor(s). The e-learning company should use Learning Outcome Statements based around common learning outcome taxonomies as described below:




Information exchange

This is the most basic level. Learning outcomes are described as “I have been told …,” “I have seen…” and so on. The business benefit is one of awareness, primarily for compliance purposes such as demonstrating that we have provided relevant information to the learner. It is not necessary to prove the effectiveness of e-learning, since providing the information within the module automatically achieves the learning outcome.


Recall / Understand

Learning outcomes are described as “I can remember …,” “I can replicate …,” or “I can describe …” Other verbs that are applicable include: I can “define, duplicate, list, memorize, recall, repeat, reproduce, describe, discuss, explain, identify, locate, recognize, report, select, translate, paraphrase,” etc. It is necessary to prove the effectiveness of the e-learning module in achieving the learning outcome. This can be done by means of standard assessments demonstrating that the learner is able to achieve these outcome statements. For example, after completing the training, the learner is asked to repeat information that has been presented during the learning experience or recognize associations that have been presented. As such, the business benefit is low to moderate.



Learning outcomes are described as “I can use …,” “I can demonstrate …,” and “I can show …” Other verbs applicable include: I can “choose, demonstrate, dramatize, employ, illustrate, interpret, operate, schedule, sketch, solve, write,” etc. It is necessary to prove the effectiveness of the e-learning module in achieving the learning outcome. This can be done by means of assessments and exercises that demonstrate that the learner is able to achieve these outcome statements. As an example, the learner might be asked to complete a simulation of a specific system functionality or is asked to undertake a simulation to categorize certain documents or tasks. The business benefit of this approach is moderate.


Evaluate / Analyze

Learning outcomes are described as “I can critique …,” or “I can appraise …” Other verbs applicable include: I can “compare, contrast, criticize, differentiate, discriminate, distinguish, examine, experiment, question, test, argue, defend, judge, select, support, value, evaluate,” etc. It is necessary to prove the effectiveness of the e-learning module. This can be done by means of assessment such as asking the learner to complete a simulation to spot errors in a document / deliverable or to undertake a branched decision-making scenario to reach the correct business decision. As such, the business benefit of this process is moderate to high.



Learning outcomes are described as “I can create …,” or “I can design ….” Other verbs applicable include: I can “assemble, construct, create, design, develop, formulate, write,” etc. It is necessary to prove the effectiveness of the e-learning module. This can be done through assessments requiring that a learner undertakes a more complex and branched decision-making scenario to reach a specific outcome. This can also include assessments that require the learner to create a deliverable, which is then scored for appropriateness by a supervisor, the e-learning module itself, or other appropriate assessors. Given the complexity of thought, the business benefit is high.


Let’s look at an example:


= Protocol

Targeted Business
Success Factor

= Ensure that all protocols are compliant with the content requirements of Good Clinical Practice

Knowledge Statement

= Protocol Template Content


Outcome Level

Example Learning Outcome Statement

Information Exchange

I am aware of what is covered in the protocol template and where to find it.

Recall / Understand

I can list the protocol sections and describe the main elements covered.


I can demonstrate where a certain topic should be covered in the protocol.

Evaluate/ Analyze

I can critique a standard protocol and identify incorrectly described elements.


I can create a protocol compliant with Good Clinical Practice based on a study concept and additional documented requirements for the study.


Clearly, the “information exchange” outcome here ensures that learners know how to find the template, and the “recall / understand” outcome ensures that they can at least remember the standard sections. However, the contribution of these two learning outcome levels to ensuring that the targeted business success factor “Ensure that all protocols are compliant with the content requirements of Good Clinical Practices” is achieved will be quite minimal. The business benefit of time spent on learner participation is much easier to justify when there is demonstrable evidence that their capability has been enhanced, as described in the “apply,” “evaluate / analyze,” and “create” learning outcome levels.


The learning outcome statements will ultimately be the key drivers for defining the content and the design of the e-learning module(s) applicable.

For each learning outcome statement, it’s important to define its application to audience roles. For each role, the following questions should be asked and documented by the e-learning company in partnership with Bayer subject matter experts:

  • Is the learning outcome statement applicable for this specific role?

  • If yes – would it be equally applicable for a future newcomer who is assumed to have not proven this, and also for established staff who may have already proven this learning outcome statement through their experience?


With respect to applicable roles, it is useful to start considering potential responses to both questions at an early stage, because ultimately the final design of the e-learning module(s) should already take into account how the assignment will be made. When one specifies content and design without such an analysis, they risk patronizing established staff, thereby compromising learner engagement by repeating basic concepts. Alternatively, future newcomers are forced into detailed concepts straight away without having any of the basic background information. Although it is possible to design e-learning modules to meet both needs – a sound analysis is a prerequisite to considering the available design options, and the same knowledge / skill(s) / behavior(s) may need to be split into two (or more) learning outcome statements at different levels; one for future newcomers and one for established staff or indeed for different roles.

Ideally, the e-learning company, in partnership with subject matter experts from Bayer, should provide a mix of learning outcome statements to satisfy the levels outlined above, while always taking into account that the level will also dictate the need for interactive exercises to be built into the learning design in order to demonstrate its effectiveness. If no such exercises are envisaged, then information exchange is the maximum learning outcome possible.

Once all learning outcome statements are listed and the target audience (roles) confirmed, the e-learning company, in partnership with subject matter experts from Bayer, should discuss and confirm the maximum amount of time to be spent on learning.


In all learning theories, it is a well-established fact that, as adults, it is not possible to ensure ‘self-paced’ learner engagement beyond a maximum of 20 minutes. This fact is particularly important when designing asynchronous e-learning modules. The ‘click next, click next’ mentality comes into effect for even the most committed adult, regardless of how interesting the topic or how innovative the design of the module is. In addition, if the learner is not interacting with My Learning Main Page, or is not able to click continue session within the 20-minute mark, the learner will be disconnected from the system.


Once the instructional design team or external company has worked with Bayer subject matter experts to confirm the maximum learning duration, each learning outcome statement should be weighted as a percentage of the duration (of learning time) and documented.


If it is clear that multiple modules will be required to meet differing groups of learning outcome statements (future newcomers versus established staff or different resources for different roles) the duration of each e-learning module should be confirmed and percentage weighting assigned per resource.


If you are designing multiple modules, Bayer’s major learning management system (SuccessFactors LMS / My Learning) offers the option of arranging several modules in an item to structure these learning modules. We examine this topic in greater depth in the chapter on SuccessFactors LMS System Details.

It may become clear during this analysis phase that multiple e-learning modules are required in order to meet the learning outcome statements. An initial proposal of all the e-learning modules required should be recorded.

In addition, it is beneficial to agree upon an initial post-learning evaluation survey concept. This will allow the instructional designer, in partnership with Bayer subject matter experts, to determine whether learners feel that the e-learning module fulfills the learning outcome statements, as well as obtaining basic return on investment and expectation data for analysis.

Upon successful completion of all of the above steps, the analysis phase serves as a basis for providing the initial content to the nominated instructional designer on the e-learning company team. This designer will then begin to consider potential concepts to be discussed during the design and development phase for the ADDIE model.


Check the E-Learning Quick Start in GoLearn for an overview including needs analysis, concept, development, roll-out, and maintenance.